Karen Gardiner’s 42

⭐⭐⭐ Karen Gardiner (PhD thesis), A New Evaluation: The Theological Influence of F. D. Maurice on the Imaginative Works of Lewis Carroll, 2022-09

Karen Gardiner’s annotation 82 on Page 64:

Two independent writers may have been partially anticipated the idea that “Rule forty-two” is related to the forty second Article concurrently with the development of the research in this thesis. Sandra Mann, Untangling the Knot, (Hammond Publishing, 2018), and the “Snarkologist” Goetz Kluge “Article 42 in the 42 Articles”, The Hunting of the Snark, May 24, 2022, https://snrk.de/article-42-in-the-42-​-articles/, whose website includes a number of references to Rule Forty-Two and the idea that the Baker is Cranmer. However, neither of these writers explore the Victorian theological context within which Article Forty-two becomes relevant again after three hundred years, and both writers consider the number forty-two only in reference to the Snark. My own work on “Rule Forty-Two” and the specific links with F. D. Maurice and his publication Theological Essays as well as the other contemporary Broad Church theologians, was independently derived and was first presented as a paper at Nottingham University in April 2017, followed by a presentation at Hull University in July 2017 and published article in the Carrollian in 2018, thus pre-empting that of both Mann and Kluge.



  1. For the honorable title “Snarkologist” I am indebted to snarkology.net.
  2. The first version of “Article 42 in the 42 Articles” had been published on 2018-07-08. (The correct link to the the present article is https://snrk.de/article-42-in-the-42-articles/). Before that, I assumed that Carroll’s “42” might be a reference to all of Thomas Cranmer’s 42 Articles. Only from Karin Gardiner’s article in The Carrollian I understood, that Carroll might have used his “42” as a kind of pointer especially to the last article in Thomas Cranmer’s 42 Articles. (In 2010 I had a look at the articles which had the numbers which were written by Henry Holiday on the Baker’s 42 Boxes.)
  3. Since December 2008 my own focus is on Henry Holiday’s illustrations (engraved by Joseph Swain) to Lewis Carroll’s Snark tragicomedy (or tragedy). However, I think that if you want to understand “The Hunting of the Snark”, the first publications you should read are the excellent papers written by Karen Gardiner. It’s serious snarkology at its best.
  4. My most important finding in Holiday’s illustrations is his pictorial reference to Thomas Cranmer’s burning. Cranmers 42 Articles and his burning made me search for pictorial references in Holiday’s illustrations to Cranmer since 2010.
  5. Thomas Cranmer’s 42 Boxes is a paper (direct download: Thomas_Cranmers_42_Boxes.pdf) which I published in 2015-02 (updated: 2016-06). It is amateurish (I am an engineer, not a theologist), but my finding is mentioned in the website of the British Museum since 2016. Thus, Henry Holiday’s illustration to the last “fit” in Lewis Carroll’s tragicomedy seems to provide convincing clues that there are references to Thomas Cranmer in the Snark. That also could indicate that Carroll discussed issues related to Cranmer with his illustrator friend.
  6. Besides my 2015 paper in Acadmia.edu, there also is a post “Anglican Church: Notes on the 42 Articles and the 39 Articles” to Reddit published on 2016-05-16. Many earlier posts are in Ipernity, e.g. Thomas Cranmer’s 42 Boxes (2013-06-03). Gardiner’s excellent article in the Carrollian was published in parallel to a few lines which I wrote in the LCSNA Knight Letter.
  7. I had a little discussion (2016-06-20) about references to Thomas Cranmer in the Snark with a member of the Anglican clergy (with a reference to my Reddit post). I continued that discussion in 2018 after I read Gardiner’s article in The Carrollian. But then I didn’t have the knowledge to show why Article Forty-two becomes relevant again after three hundred years. Now Karen Gardiner could explain that to him (starting from page 64 of her thesis). Her work is excellent. Thanks to her, I got a better understanding for what I am doing.

reading list | article 42 in the 42 Articles | articles 27, 41 and 42

2023-09-18, update: 2024-07-03

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